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Inhaltsbereich: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung

    Early child care and maternal employment: empirical evidence from Germany

    14 January 2019

    This paper examines the effect of an expansion of subsidized early child care on maternal labor market outcomes. It contributes to the literature by analyzing, apart from the employment rate and agreed working hours, preferred working hours. Using the legal claim for subsidized child care introduced in Germany in August 2013 for children aged one to three years, I apply a semi-parametric difference-in-differences estimator to examine maternal labor market outcomes.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 2/2019


    The rise of online labour markets: freelancing and gig working via internet platforms

    20 December 2018

    Hands on a notebook and a graphicGUEST CONTRIBUTION Gig work apps’ food delivery drivers have become a familiar sight in many European cities. However, there is also a completely digital version of platform-mediated non-standard work. In online gig work, self-employed workers complete projects remotely for clients obtained through online labour platforms. Surveys suggest that similar proportions of European workers engage in online gig work and local gig work, yet the two differ significantly. The online gig economy is transnational and spans a full spectrum of skills, from data entry to software development. It offers an interesting view to the future of skills, social protection, and industrial relations in Europe.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    The Effect of Compulsory Service on Life Satisfaction and its Channels

    18 December 2018
    Compulsory military service is still a prominent feature of young people’s careers in many countries. We use the abolition of compulsory military and civil service for males in 2011 in Germany as a natural experiment to identify effects of institutionalized career disruptions on life satisfaction. Drawing on data from the SOEP, we apply a difference-in-differences design (comparing young males and females) to assess the causal effect of this reform on individual life satisfaction. Our results show a significant and robust positive effect of the abolition of compulsory service on young males’ life satisfaction. Furthermore, we provide empirical evidence that reductions in career disruptions, forgone earnings, uncertainty regarding the future, and forced labor contribute to this effect.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 24/2018

    Departing from the beaten track – trends of working in the digital transformation

    20 November 2018

    Young people holding smartphones and notebooks in their handsOur economy and society are facing major challenges in times of digital transformation, demographic change and increasing globalisation – developments which are increasingly gaining momentum. Everything is becoming more volatile, many things are changing at an incredible pace – this holds many opportunities but also risks. This will also significantly change the way we live and work in years to come. For this reason, it is essential for all of us to deal with developments in this area. Frequently, we ourselves are the drivers of this development – whether as consumers, employees or entrepreneurs.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    Full and Constrained Pareto Optimality with Incomplete Financial Markets

    12 November 2018

    We study the efficiency properties of equilibria in a neighborhood of economies with Pareto
    optimal (PO) initial endowments, when the number of agents is finitely large. We provide
    conditions under which, for all the economies in some open neighborhood of the PO reference
    economy, all the equilibria are constrained PO (CPO). We also provide conditions
    under which each open neighborhood of these exceptional PO economies contains both
    open sets of economies with CPO equilibria and open sets of economies where CPO fails.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 22/2018


    Labour market integration of refugees gains momentum

    17 October 2018

    Multiethnic architects are discussing blueprintsA good 70 percent of refugees in Germany come from eight non-European asylum seekers’ countries of origin. Their integration into the German labour market has increasingly gained momentum in recent years. Hence, the employment rate of people from these countries who have moved to Germany since the end of 2014 increased by almost 9 percentage points in the first six months of 2017 and by a good 12 percentage points to 28 percent in the first six months of 2018.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    Employment effects of language training for unemployed immigrants

    10 October 2018


    Proficiency in the host country’s language is an important factor for a successful labor market integration of immigrants. In this study we analyze the effects of a language training program for professional purposes on the employment opportunities of the participants. We apply an instrumental variable approach and exploit differences in the local training intensities to deal with the problem of unobserved language skills in the data. Our results show that not taking into account endogeneity of language training leads to an underestimation of the effects. Bivariate probit estimates show that language training increases the employment probability of individuals with migration background who participated in 2014 by approximately seven percentage points two years after program start.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 21/2018


    Best Poster Award 2018 by the European Association of Labour Economists (EALE)

    19 September 2018

    Ulrich Zierahn, Terry Gregory, Florian Lehmer und Sabrina Genz (from left to right);  © private photoAt the 2018 conference of the European Association of Labour Economists (EALE), the Best Poster Award was presented to the team consisting of researchers from the Centre for European Economic Research (Melanie Arntz, Terry Gregory and Ulrich Zierahn) and the Institute for Employment Research (Sabrina Genz, Markus Janser, Florian Lehmer and Britta Matthes) for their research on the effects of the digital transformation on employment in Germany.

    Poster


    Setting out for Digital Social Security

    13 September 2018

    Setting out for Digital Social Security Platform work is increasing worldwide, leaving a serious lack of social protection. In spite of the international and flexible character of platform work, extending social security is feasible – if one is ready to explore new avenues. This article is on setting out for Digital Social Security.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum


    Patterns of Overeducation in Europe: The Role of Field of Study

    12 September 2018

    This study investigates the incidence of overeducation among graduate workers in 21 EU countries and its underlying factors based on the European Labor Force Sur-vey 2016 (EU-LFS). Although controlling for a wide range of covariates, the particular interest lies in the role of fields of study for vertical educational mismatch. The study reveals country and gender differences in the impact of these factors.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 20/2018


    Women still hit the glass ceiling – despite operational promotion of equal opportunities

    29 August 2018

    ChencengleichheitThere is a large wage gap between women and men. The search for explanations and solutions must start exactly where wages are decided: in the enterprises. In Germany, operational measures to promote equal opportunities of women and men and formalised Human Resources processes shall help reduce this gap and ensure fair wages. Can this work?

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum


    The German labour market after the introduction of the statutory minimum wage

    06 August 2018

    Buntstift liegt auf der Tastatur eines TaschenrechnersOn the 1st January 2015, a nationwide statutory minimum wage of €8.50 was introduced in Germany. On 1st January 2017 it was then increased to €8.84. Prior to and during its introduction the economic policy debate focused mainly on the development of wages and the minimum wage’s possible effect on the level of employment.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum



    Hiring by start-ups and regional labor supply

    30 July 2018
    Young firms find it difficult to attract (skilled) workers. Using linked employer-employee data for Germany we investigate how local labor market conditions affect the hiring success of young firms. In a first step, we estimate the probability of the founder becoming an employer. In a second step we analyze how local conditions influence the probability of hiring skilled human capital. The results indicate a positive relationship between the local unemployment level and the hiring probability of young firms.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 18/2018

    Links Lecture Award 2018 goes to Prof. Frauke Kreuter

    20 July 2018

    Prof. Dr. Frauke KreuterProf. Frauke Kreuter was honoured with the „Links Lecture Award 2018“ of the American Statistical Association (ASA) for adding important links in the progress of official statistics through leadership in education and training and distinguished contributions to the literature on social and economic measurement. Kreuter is head of the IAB Statistical Methods group and Professor at the University of Mannheim. She also holds a Professorship in the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland. Kreuter presents her Links Lecture in Washington DC on November 5th, 2018.

    More Information


    Good scientific policy advice: the IAB's five principles

    20 July 2018

    Ein Mann und eine Frau unterhalten sich. Sie befinden sich in einem Bürogebäude.Policy advice is an integral part of policy-making in contemporary democracies and a central task of the IAB. But what makes “good” policy advice? Even if the quality of individual advisory services cannot be measured, quality criteria can be identified and quality assurance methods can be outlined.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    European youth unemployment in the aftermath of the Great Recession

    02 July 2018

    Five young men and women with documents in their hands are sitting in a row while waitingAs a consequence of the Great Recession, starting in most European countries in 2009, the number of unemployed young people increased significantly. Using 2008 as the reference point, where most European countries were performing quite well economically, the total number of unemployed young people aged 15 to 24 years was 4.2 million according to Eurostat. In the recession years European youth unemployment rose to 5.6 million in 2012 and declined thereafter to 3.8 million in 2017.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    Economic integration of migrants in Germany

    29 June 2018

    The dissertation evaluates economic integration of migrants in Germany from various perspectives. First, Hanna Brenzel shows that differences in job mobility influence wage trajectories of migrants and natives which, in turn, contribute to wage differentials. Next, she documents the fact that the immigrant-native wage gap is influenced by different personality traits. Last, her work demonstrates that there are differences between single and family migrants concerning their respective labor market integration processes.

    IAB-Bibliothek 369


    Do startups provide employment opportunities for disadvantaged workers?

    25 June 2018
    This paper analyzes whether startups offer job opportunities to workers potentially facing labor market problems. It compares the hiring patterns of startups and incumbents in the period 2003 to 2014 using administrative linked employer-employee data for Germany that allow to take the complete employment biographies of newly hired workers into account. The results indicate that young plants are more likely than incumbents to hire older and foreign applicants as well as workers who have instable employment biographies, come from unemployment or outside the labor force, or were affected by a plant closure. However, an analysis of entry wages reveals that disadvantageous worker characteristics come along with higher wage penalties in startups than in incumbents. Therefore, even if startups provide employment opportunities for certain groups of disadvantaged workers, the quality of these jobs in terms of initial remuneration seems to be low.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 17/2018

    Codetermination losing ground

    14 June 2018

    BetriebsversammlungLike collective bargaining coverage, codetermination is becoming less and less significant in German companies. Only a minority of employees, especially in East Germany, work in companies with a works council.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    R Package hmi: A Convenient Tool for Hierarchical Multiple Imputation and Beyond

    05 June 2018

    Applications of multiple imputation have long outgrown the traditional context of dealing with item nonresponse in cross-sectional data sets. Nowadays multiple imputation is also applied to impute missing values in hierarchical data sets, address confidentiality concerns, combine data from different sources, or correct measurement errors in surveys. However, software developments did not keep up with these recent extensions. Most imputation software can only deal with item nonresponse in cross-sectional settings and extensions for hierarchical data – if available at all – are typically limited in scope. Furthermore, to our knowledge no software is currently available for dealing with measurement error using multiple imputation approaches.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 16/2018


    Binding Collective Agreements: The Downward Trend Continues

    04 June 2018

    Close-up view of hands counting money with calculatorWages and working conditions are negotiated between employers and employees. Collective agreements provide both parties with an institutional framework to that end. But in the last few years, companies have seen a downward trend in binding collective agreements, and thus also in the importance of such agreements for the employees. In East Germany in particular, companies prefer to act outside of collective agreements, as evidenced by the latest data from the IAB Establishment Panel.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    Heterogeneous effects of investmentgrants – Evidence from a new measurement Approach

    22 May 2018

    This paper estimates establishment-level employment effects of investmentgrants in one oft the German Federal States receiving the most support. We analyze general treatment effects, as well as the infuence of heterogeneity in the characteristics and economic environment of the establishment on its employment development. Modifying the standard matching and difference-in-differences approach, we develop a new procedure that is particularly useful for evaluating funding programs within dividual treatment phases within the period of observation. Our data basis combines treatment-related, establishment-specifc and regional Information from different sources.The results suggest that Investment grants have a positive influence on the development of employment in establishment in both absolute and standardized fgures (i. e. in relation to the amount of subsidy received) – with considerable effect heterogeneity.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 15/2018


    The greening of jobs in Germany - First evidence from a text mining based index and employment register data

    17 May 2018

    The transition towards a greener, less carbon-intensive economy leads to a growing demand for green products, services and business processes. In theory, this trend should lead to a greening of jobs, i.e. to an increasing share of environmentally friendly requirements within occupations (greening of occupations) and to a rising labor demand for employees in these occupations (greening of employment). Due to a lack of measures, there is no empirical evidence on the relationship between the greening of jobs and the real labor market development so far. To fill this gap, the paper measures, describes and analyzes the greening of jobs and its associations with employment and wage growth.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 14/2018


    Forms of employment in European comparison

    09 May 2018

    Compass arrow points to the word JOBGermany does not stand alone in having experienced changes in the landscape of work. However, these changes differ in comparison to other countries – both in relation to the relative importance of different forms of employment, and in terms of their development over time.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    Migrant women labor-force participation in Germany Human capital, segmented labor market, and gender perspectives

    24 April 2018

    This paper analyzes individual, structural, and cultural factors that influence the labor-force participation of migrant women in Germany. Considering the well-established evidence that immigrant women work less than natives, with statuses and earnings differing significantly between them, The author investigates the economic activity of the former by examining the cross-sectional data from the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample 2013 with multiple linear regression techniques.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 12/2018


    Urbanization, Commuting and Regional Labor Markets

    10 April 2018

    Due to its regional structure, with numerous centers of intensive economic activity, Germany lends itself particularly to analyses of spatial mechanisms of cities and interrelationships between regions. As a result of the increase in urban population, commuting serves as a spatial dispersion mechanism and leads to interactions between regional labor markets. The author studies how local labor markets interact, how densely populated markets facilitate the search for a new job and how employees react to changes in their commuting distance.

    IAB-Bibliothek 368


    Labour market advice and job placement of refugees: Labour market integration is still a long way off

    10 April 2018

    BA-IntegrationsmesseA few refugees get a job soon after they arrived in Germany. However, for most of them labour market integration is still a long way off. Bevor getting a job, many refugees have to learn German and engage in retraining or vocational education and training. As far as labour market integration of refugees is concerned, job counsellors in the public employment service play an essential role. In an extensive research project the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) has analysed the process of labour market advice and job placement of refugees.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum.


    Bogus self-employment in Germany. Also a question of definition

    03 April 2018

    Six folders, four labeled with the word employed, one labeled with self-employed and one lebels with a ?Based on a large-scale empirical study with 30,000 participants, the IAB explored the dissemination of bogus self-employment in Germany. In particular, the study analyses which labour market groups are over average affected by bogus self-employment as an illegal form of employment. The study employs alternative legal definitions of employment to test the sensitivity of the results.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum


    FDI and Unemployment, a Growth Perspective

    29 March 2018

    North-South foreign direct investment (FDI) is frequently viewed as a process in which
    jobs relocate from the North to the South. I build a growth model with two asymmetric
    trading economies, the North where firms innovate and the South where Northern firms
    invest to take advantage of lower wages.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 11/2018


    Digitalisation, hiring and personnel policy: evidence from a representative business survey

    27 March 2018

    In this paper we examine how employment and hiring processes develop in the course of digitalisation in German establishments. To this end we use a large representative business survey – the IAB Job Vacancy Survey – that was extended in 2015 to include special questions about the state of digital development in each establishment surveyed, thereby permitting a direct link between the topics of digitalisation and employment/hiring.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 10/2018


    Low Wage Growth in Germany? – Don’t Blame the Migrants!

    23 March 2018

    Low Wage Growth in Germany? – Don’t Blame the Migrants!The German labour market follows a fascinating employment trend since the year 2005. In contrast, wage growth remained weak until 2010 and although wage dynamics have picked up by now, they remain clearly subdued when compared to the vibrant development of employment and vacancies. Various explanations such as weak productivity development and the rise of service jobs are given for this phenomenon. In the same context, one often finds the strong migration to Germany. The argument is a classical one: migrants increase labour supply which leads to higher wage competition. We argue that such a mechanism is unlikely to have played a relevant role for German wages in the recent years.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum


    For better or worse? How more flexibility in working time arrangements and fatherhood affect men’s working hours in Germany

    22 March 2018

    Many fathers want to spend more time with their children and engage in household, but most of them continue to work full-time after the birth of a child. To better combine work and family, flexible working time arrangements might play a crucial role for fathers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and fixed-effects regression models, we investigate the impact of flexible working time arrangements on actual working hours of men and fathers.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 9/2018


    Colloquium: The effect of recent labour market oriented immigration from EU member states on wage dynamics in Germany

    19 March 2018

    In our discussion series „Labour market and occupational research“ Dr. Matthias Hertweck from the Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) investigates the wage impact of recent fairly strong labour market oriented net immigration flows from EU member states to Germany. The analysis is based on a modified approach to estimating wage growth in Germany taken in the Bundesbank macroeconometric model. The results indicate that recent net immigration from EU member states to Germany reduced annualised wage growth by almost 1 percentage point on average over the past two years. Even when taking into account the wage effect of net immigration, tight labour market conditions contributed strongly to upward wage pressure in recent years. At the same time, wage growth contributions of low inflation rates and relatively weak productivity growth were below average.

    The discussion series "Labour Market and Occupational Research" is a forum where primarily external researchers present the results of their work and discuss these with experts from the IAB. The colloquium with Dr. Matthias Hertweck from the Deutsche Bundesbank takes place in conference room E10, Regensburger Street 100, 90478 Nürnberg on March 21st, 2018 at 2 pm.

    Abstract


    Do active labour market policies for welfare recipients in Germany raise their regional outflow into work?

    05 March 2018

    While many studies estimated the effects of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) on the participants’ labour market outcomes, much fewer studies are con-cerned with effects of these policies on the regional matching-process between job seekers and vacancies. An essential part of many reforms of the unemployment benefit system such as in Germany intended to activate unemployed job-seekers through an intense use of ALMPs. Therefore, it is crucial to understand whether such policies can improve the matching efficiency. We analyse quarterly panel data of German job centres in the period 2006 to 2011 and estimate the effects of the most important ALMPs on the regional exit rate from job-seeking into regular employment in a matching-function framework by applying the system generalized methods of moments estimator.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 8/2018


    Cohort size and labour-market outcomes

    28 February 2018

    How does the size of young age cohorts affect the labour-market outcomes of these groups? Employing different microeconometric methods in an empirical analysis at the regional level, Duncan Roth addresses this question in the four essays contained in this book. The analysis deals with the effects on wages, employment and unemployment as well as the duration of search for employment following labour-market entry.

    IAB-Bibliothek 367


    Long-term unemployment: a European comparison

    23 February 2018

    Long-term unemployment: a European comparisonFor many years, Germany was notable for its high levels of long-term unemployment compared to other countries. However, in contrast to the European trend, the number of long-term unemployed has decreased significantly since the mid-2000s. In most other European countries the number of long-term unemployed rose to a greater or lesser degree as a result of the financial and Euro debt crisis.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum


    German FDI in the Czech Republic – Employment effects in the home country

    22 February 2018

    Do investments in the Czech Republic lead to employment growth or employment losses in the German firms involved? To address this question, a unique database about German firms with foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Czech Republic and firms without FDI in any country has been established within the IAB-ReLOC project. By developing a new method for linking firm-level data with establishment-level data of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB), this database is now linked with the IAB employment data. As the exact dates of the investments in the Czech Republic are known, the employment development of firms with Czech affiliates and firms without FDI is compared for the same time periods.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 6/2018


    The Timing of Structural Labor Market Reforms Matters

    09 February 2018

    The Timing of Structural Labor Market Reforms Matters Ever since the economic and financial crises of the late 2000s – also known as the Great Recession –, demands for structural reforms to ease market regulations have been omnipresent in Europe. A particular emphasis has been placed on labor market regulations – involving heated political debates. A recent IAB study shows that the effects of labor market reforms heavily depend on the timing of the reform.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum


    Graduate migration in Germany – new evidence from an event history analysis

    05 February 2018
    This study use administrative social security records and event history methods to investigate graduate migration in Germany. The results indicate that most migration events happen up to seven years after graduation. Work experience gathered before and during the studies influences the migration decision, pointing to the importance of labour market contacts and social networks. In contrast to previous studies we do not detect a genuine negative duration dependence for the probability of leaving the region of study. When labour market entry outside the university region is considered there is some indication for cumulative stress.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 3/2018

    The flow of migrants to Germany and their integration into the labour market

    26 January 2018

    MigrationSince 2015, questions around migration and the integration of migrant men and women into the labour market, the education system and all other areas of society have moved into the centre of public and political discourse. A key focus of interest is the high level of refugee migration in 2015, which represented a historical peak, unmatched since the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    The full article can be found in our Magazine IAB-Forum


    Labor Markets and Labor Mobility in the French-German Border Region

    22 January 2018
    This paper examines the cross-border labor market in the French-German Upper Rhine Region. Based on shortage analyses conducted for both sides of the border, a fixed effects panel regression estimates the impact of changing labor market situa-tions on the number of French frontier workers. Although some of the anticipated effects are detected, their size is rather modest and insufficient to balance regional disparities in a way that would be expected in a fully integrated cross-border labor market. By the same token, the quantitative analysis identifies standardized certifi-cates as a barrier to cross-border mobility and confirms a preference of frontier workers for routine tasks. In addition, insufficient public transportation and language skills, missing information about the neighboring country as well as problems with the recognition of degrees are also found among the obstacles to an integrated labor market.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 2/2018

    The Organizational Design of High-Tech Startups and Product Innovation

    04 January 2018

    In this study they investigate whether appointing a middle management level affects startups’ innovation performance. Additional hierarchical levels are often suspected to restrict innovative activities. However, founders’ capacities for information processing and resource allocation are usually strongly limited while, at the same time, R&D decisions are among the most consequential choices of startups. They argue that middle management is positively related to introducing product innovations because it improves the success rates from recombining existing knowledge as well as managing R&D personnel. In addition, we suggest that the effectiveness of these mechanisms depends on the riskiness of a startup’s business opportunity. Based on a sample of German high-tech startups, they find support for our conjectures.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 1/2018


    Longer maternity leave – healthier mothers?

    21 December 2017

    Leave policies allowing parents to take time off work after childbirth are considered an important measure to buffer the stresses associated with childrearing and gainful employment. Despite reducing this double burden, longer leave periods do not necessarily support the return of healthier mothers into the labor market.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum


    Job Matching on Connected Regional and Occupational Labor Markets

    19 December 2017

    Job mobility equilibrates disparities on local labor markets and influences the efficiency of the job matching process. In this paper, they describe a job matching model that allows for simultaneous regional and occupational mobility, predicting corresponding spillover effects on the number of matches. They estimate these spillover effects based on novel administrative German data on the number of matches, unemployed, and vacancies of local labor markets, which they define as distinct occupations in distinct regions.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 35/2017


    Learning from Mouse Movements: Improving Questionnaire and Respondents’ User Experience through Passive Data Collection

    13 December 2017

    This study aims to develop automated procedures for detecting and quantifying difficulty indicators in web surveys. It will use, and build on, indicators that have been identified by prior research. In addition, the current study relies on recent meth-odological advances in psychology that propose mouse-tracking measures for as-sessing the tentative commitments to, and conflict between, response alternatives.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 34/2017 


    The German Employment Performance in an International Context

    04 December 2017

    Beitragsbild German Employment Performance in an International ContextIf you want to use a single indicator to understand how the German labour market compares internationally, then the employment rate is a fitting measure to use. It gives the proportion of the working population relative to the total working-age population (aged 15 to 64), thus showing to what degree working-age people are in active employment in the respective country.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    Formal Search and Referrals from a Firm’s Perspective

    04 December 2017

    This study explores the relationship between frms’ characteristics and their recruitment strategies. They propose a model based on a search and matching framework with two search channels: a formal channel which is costly for frms and a costless informal channel, i.e. referrals. There is a continuum of heterogeneous vacancies in our model where every firm with an open vacancy chooses an optimal search effort in order to attract job candidates. This search effort depends on the productivity of the firm and, contrary to the previous literature, workers send simultaneous applications to open vacancies. We assess the model predictions by using the IAB Job Vacancy Survey, a representative Survey among human resource managers in Germany reporting information about their most recent recruitment case.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 33/2017


    The Effects of Skill-Biased Technical Change on Productivity Flattening and Hours Worked

    20 November 2017

    In a structural macroeconometric analysis based on comprehensive micro data, the authors examine
    the role of skill-biased technical change for the flattening of productivity growth and
    effects on hours worked.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 32/2017


    Big Data – the beginning of a golden age for empirical labour market research? An interview with IAB researcher Frauke Kreuter

    17 November 2017

    Professor Frauke KreuterBig Data! This is the new magic word in labour market research. But what is this really about? What is the use of it? And what does it mean for data protection and the training and further training of our researchers? Prof. Frauke Kreuter, Head of the Statistical Methods Centre (Kompetenzzentrum Empirische Methoden – KEM) in the IAB, answers these questions in an interview for IAB-Forum.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    EU project analyses international labor migration from different perspectives

    09 November 2017

    Junge Leute mit GlobusThe European network “Global mobility of employees” offers IAB a unique opportunity to transnationally co-operate with partners from academia, industry, and administration and to jointly train early stage researchers.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum

     

     


    Walking between the worlds – labour market economist and former Secretary of State Pedro S. Martins

    19 October 2017

    Pedro S. MartinsPedro S. Martins is an expert spanning boundaries between science and politics: Martins, who is now doing research at Queen Mary University of London, was Secretary of State in the Ministry for Economics and Employment of his home country Portugal from 2011 until 2013.  At a time when unemployment, especially among the youth, achieved a record high across Southern Europe as a result of the economic and financial crisis. As a politician, he got a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to combat job crisis by implementing measures that he himself had always advocated as a researcher.  

    In an interview to the IAB-Forum magazine, he airs his assessments and experience.


    Quantifying the effect of labor market size on learning externalities

    13 October 2017

    We show for Germany that labor productivity as reflected in wage is, ceteris paribus, higher for workers who previously acquired work experience in rather urban labor markets with a large local workforce than in rather rural labor markets which are small in terms of regional employment. Our empirical analysis provides new evidence on the magnitude of these dynamic agglomeration gains by estimating the elasticity of wages with regard to the (cumulated) size of the local labor markets in which workers acquired experience.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 31/2017


    German Robots – The Impact of Industrial Robots on Workers

    02 October 2017

    The authors study the impact of rising robot exposure on the careers of individual manufacturing
    workers, and the equilibrium impact across industries and local labor markets in Germany.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 30/2017


    The creation and resolution of working hour discrepancies over the life course

    21 September 2017
    Studies on labor supply have increasingly taken account of not only the actual working hours, but also of working hour preferences as well as the discrepancy between them. However, longitudinal research on this topic remains scarce. This paper contributes to the analysis of working hour discrepancies by exploring how hours mismatch emerges and resolves with special consideration of the household context.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 29/2017

    The impact of the digital revolution on the labour market: an interview with IAB Director Joachim Möller

    14 September 2017

    Beitragsbild Video "digitale Revolution": Roboter und Mensch schütteln HändeIs the digital revolution a job-destroyer or a job-creator? How will it change traditional occupational images? In an interview to the IAB-Forum magazine, IAB Director Joachim Möller discusses these questions and argues for a “flexibility compromise” between the social partners as a strategy to organize the consequences of technological change on the labour market in a productive and socially acceptable manner.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum


    Should the US introduce a dual vocational training system following the German example? Four questions to IAB researcher Simon Janssen

    13 September 2017

    In an article in the renowned Wall Street Journal of 8 September 2016 (“Germany offers a promising jobs model”), the American labour market economist Edward Lazear and the IAB researcher Simon Janssen recommend that the US introduce a dual vocational training system following the German example. The US economist Erik A. Hanushek clearly objected to this in another article in the Wall Street Journal (“German-Style Apprenticeships Simply Can’t Be Replicated”).

    You can find the full interview in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    The Fall of the Labour Income Share: the Role of Technological Change and Imperfect Labour Markets

    13 September 2017

    The non-constancy of factor shares is drawing the attention of many researchers. We document an average drop of the labour share of 8 percentage points for eight European countries and the US between 1980 and 2007. They investigate theoretically and empirically two mechanisms: the substitution between Information Communication Technology (ICT) and labour and the presence of hiring costs.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 28/2017


    Counteracting unemployment in crises: Non-linear effects of short-time work policy

    13 September 2017

    Short-time work is a labor market policy that subsidizes working time reductions among firms in financial difficulty in order to prevent layoffs and stabilize employment. Many OECD countries have used this policy in the Great Recession, for example. This paper shows that the effects of discretionary short-time work are strongly time dependent and non-linear over the business cycle.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 27/2017


    Active labour market policy in Germany: an interview with IAB Director Joachim Möller

    01 September 2017

    Beitragsbild Video: Active labour market policy in GermanyActive labour market policy plays an important role in Germany. In an interview to the IAB-Forum magazine, IAB Director Joachim Möller discusses its underlying principles such as the idea of “demanding and supporting” (Fordern und Fördern). He emphasizes the fact that evaluation results tend to have a significant impact on the design of labour market policies.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum


    Examining the Link Between Health Measures, Management Practices and Establishment Performance

    23 August 2017

    In this paper they examine the relationship between establishment-level health measures, Anglo-Saxon management practices and labor productivity, as well as median wages. Based on the observation that management practices are positively associated with establishment outcomes, they test whether health measures have a distinct effect on their own, or if they are already comprised in management practices.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 26/2017


    The dual apprenticeship system in Germany: an interview with IAB Director Joachim Möller

    16 August 2017

    Ausbildung KFZ-LehrstätteYouth unemployment in Germany is very low by international standards. In an interview to the IAB-Forum magazine, IAB Director Joachim Möller attributes this success to three factors: the favourable economic situation, the introduction of “youth employment advisory services” (Jugendberufsagenturen) supporting the transition from school to employment and, in particular, the well-established system of dual vocational training, which combines on-the-job training in the firms with part-time education in a vocational school.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    Regional mobility of unemployed workers

    11 August 2017

    Modern labour markets are characterised by the high levels of flexibility they demand of workers and unemployed individuals in particular. Increasing the willingness of jobseekers for regional mobility is an integral part of this development and was at the heart of the far reaching Hartz reforms of the German labour market in the early 2000s. Within this context, this research assesses the role regional mobility plays in the job search of unemployed individuals.

    IAB-Bibliothek 365


    Ethnic diversity in start-ups and its impact on Innovation

    08 August 2017

    The study analyses the impact of different ethnic compositions of start-ups in Germany on the innovativeness of the new businesses. We are able to distinguish between the ethnicity of the founders and that of the early employees following new results that demonstrate the importance of including all new firms’ stakeholders for the firm’s success. We make use of a measure introduced by Ruef (2002) and Ruef et al. (2003) which not only takes into account the number of different ethnicities involved, but also includes the unusualness of the ethnic compositions.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 25/2017


    Creative and science oriented employees and firm innovation: A key for Smarter Cities?

    07 August 2017

    This paper examines the link between the endowment of creative and science based STEM – Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – workers and the level of the firm and firm- and city-/regional-level innovation in Germany. It also looks into whether the presence of these two groups of workers has greater benefits for larger cities than smaller locations, thus justifying policies to attract these workers in order to make German cities ‘smarter’.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 24/2017


    Refugees and migration in Germany: an interview with IAB Director Joachim Möller

    03 August 2017

    Beitragsbild MigrationIn recent years, Germany has taken in a great number of people who abandoned their home countries fleeing from the war, political persecution and economic hardship. In 2015, the number of those who fled to Germany amounted to almost one million which is a historic record high. Integration of these people into the labour market poses a massive challenge for the country. In an interview to the IAB-Forum magazine, IAB Director Joachim Möller gives an overview of the results of a large-scale refugee survey, and discusses the prospects of integration of those who fled to Germany into the German labour market, as well as the impact on the labour market status of the native population.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    Identifying Asymmetric Effects of Labor Market Reforms

    01 August 2017

    This paper investigates whether the effects of structural labor market reforms depend on the business cycle. Based on search and matching theory, the authors propose an unobserved components approach with Markov switching to distinguish the effects of structural reforms that increase the flexibility of the labor market in recession and expansion.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 23/2017


    Innovation and Location in German Knowledge Intensive Business Service firms

    26 July 2017

    Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are widely perceived as being important drivers of technological progress and innovation. KIBS are generally understood as depending, driving and thriving on knowledge exchanges and therefore, geographical proximity to markets, customers and suppliers would be expected to be a critical factor in their performance. This paper investigates how the innovation performance and processes of KIBS firms are related to their distance from the nearest city and also to the size of the nearest city.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 22/2017


    The German minimum wage: an interview with IAB Director Joachim Möller

    20 July 2017

    5-Euro-Schein und MünzenAfter many years of debates, 2015 saw the introduction of a statutory minimum wage of € 8.50 per hour (€ 8.84 since 2017) in Germany. While opponents of the minimum wage predicted negative effects on employment, some advocates expected the number of wage earners depending on social basic benefits to decrease significantly due to the minimum wage. In an interview for the IAB-Forum, Joachim Möller, Director of IAB, explains to what extent these fears or hopes proved true.

    The full interview can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    Stability of Functional Labour Market Regions

    20 July 2017

    The number of commuters and the distances of home-to-work travel have increased in recent decades. Based on a previous study that proposed a new approach for delineating functional labour market regions, this paper focuses on the temporal stability of delineations of labour market regions in Germany. In a comparison of the best delineations among pooled groups of three years beginning in 1993, regions are classified as core regions, related regions or overlapping regions. The main finding is that regions surrounding important labour market centres form stable labour markets. Over time, most employees belong to the same labour market region or parts of it.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 21/2016


    Digitalising the economy: The future of employment and qualification in Germany

    17 July 2017

    Mann im RechenzentrumThe new complex and intelligent digitalisation poses a significant challenge to the economies and the labour markets. In this context, Enzo Weber discusses in his article on the IAB online magazine the future of employment and changes in qualification requirements as well as policies for vocational and further training, social security and the coordination of flexibility. Weber provides a view on the development in Germany as a large Continental economy.

    The full article can be found in our magazine IAB-Forum.


    European unemployment insurance: finding the golden mean

    12 July 2017

    EU-Flaggen vor Gebäude Enzo Weber publishes an article on the concept of a European unemployment insurance on the IAB online magazine.

    The idea is to insure all Euorpean workers for unemployment in a common system. This aims at macroeconomically stabilising all of Europe. However, that does not necessarily require the invention of a new insurance. The same effect could also be achieved by a European backup budget, financed by the member states.

    You can find the full article in our magazine IAB-Forum


    What harmonised and registered unemployment rates do not tell

    11 July 2017
    The most commonly used statistical sources for the analysis of unemployment are registered unemployment (RU) at the national level and internationally harmonised unemployment data provided by the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) ac-cording to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) standard. The logic behind both unemployment statistics is to count people "without work" only when they are “actively looking” and “available for work”.
    This methodological study provides an in-depth analysis of the discrepancies between registered unemployment (RU) and internationally harmonised unemployment (LFS-U) in a comparative view. For ten selected EU-countries (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK) they show in which countries the registers are more restrictive than the survey and vice versa.

    IAB-Forschungsbericht 6/2017

    Knowledge at first click – IAB-Forum goes online

    30 June 2017

    IAB-Forum onlineLabour markets have become more international, more interlinked.  Many employees now expect that their work will take them abroad, to new labour markets.  Likewise, labour markets like ours in Germany require migration to meet the skills needs we have at home.  At the IAB, we see this internationalisation not only in research but also on a practical level. Interest in our research from foreign policymakers and experts used to be the exception; now it’s the norm. 

    For this reason, we want to offer you a bespoke international section in our new online magazine IAB-Forum: where you can access the latest English-language research and analysis in a way which is tailored to the interests of our international partners. It offers, among others, relevant basic information about the main features and developments of the German labour market.

    You will also find an interesting video interview with IAB director Joachim Möller about the reasons for the German job miracle.


    What makes employees satisfied with their working time?

    22 June 2017

    Working time arrangements are key elements of working conditions and determine the possibilities for employees to balance work with their other life spheres. Therefore, this paper examines the level of working time satisfaction of employees and identifies the factors that may facilitate or impede satisfaction with working time using crosssectional data from the German BIBB/BAuA-Employment Survey.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 20/2017


    The effect of broadband internet on establishments’ employment growth: evidence from Germany

    14 June 2017

    This study investigates the effects of local broadband internet availability on establishment-level employment growth. The analysis uses data for Germany in the years 2005-2009, when broadband was introduced in rural regions of Western Germany and in large parts of Eastern Germany. Technical frictions in broadband rollout are exploited to obtain exogenous variation in local broadband availability.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 19/2017


    Where Did All the Unemployed Go?

    12 June 2017

    The number of unemployed workers in Germany decreased dramatically from its peak in February 2005 at over 5.2 million to 3.6 million by 2008. At the same time, employment increased by 1.2 million. Most theoretical and empirical analyses of this episode assume that a worker leaving unemployment moves into full employment. We ask where the unemployed actually went. Using and merging two large micro data sets, we account for the decrease of unemployment by computing inflows and outflows between unemployment and 16 other labour market states.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 18/2017


    Retention and Re-integration of older workers into the labour market: What works?

    17 May 2017

    Although the labour market situation of older workers has significantly improved over time, opportunities to work at older age still vary considerably across EU countries. To trace diverging developments and to assess what works best in retaining employment and bringing older unemployed back to work developments in five countries are analysed: Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway and Austria.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 17/2017


    Does Participating in a Panel Survey Change Respondents’ Labor Market Behavior?

    03 May 2017

    Panel survey participation can bring about unintended changes in respondents’ behavior and/or reporting of behavior. Using administrative data linked to a large panel survey, we analyze changes in respondents’ labor market behavior. We estimate the causal effect of panel participation on the take-up of federal labor market programs using instrumental variables. Results show that panel survey participation leads to a decrease in respondents’ take-up of these measures. These results suggest that panel survey participation not only affects the reporting of behavior, as previous studies have demonstrated, but can also alter respondents’ actual behavior.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 15/2017


    The German Labor Market in the Great Recession: Shocks and Institutions

    27 April 2017

    This paper analyzes Germany’s unusual labor market experience during the Great Recession. We estimate a general equilibrium model with a detailed labor market block for postunification Germany. This allows us to disentangle the role of institutions (short-time work, government spending rules) and shocks (aggregate, labor market, and policy shocks) and to perform counterfactual exercises.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 14/2017


    Should the unemployed care for the elderly?

    19 April 2017

    Demographic change implies an increasing demand for elderly care and a lower Labor force potential at the same time. Training unemployed workers in care occupations might mitigate this problem. This study analyzes the effectiveness of subsidized Training in elderly care professions for the unemployed in Germany over 12 years.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 13/2017


    Resilience among vulnerable households in Europe - Questions, concept, findings and implications

    13 April 2017

    The paper shows the results of the RESCuE project, an in-depth qualitative Investigation of 250 vulnerable households, their living conditions and socioeconomic practices across nine European countries on the background of the European crisis since 2008.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 12/2017


    The relevance of personal characteristics and gender diversity for (eco) - innovation activities at the firm-level

    10 April 2017

    Up to now, the growing literature on the determinants of eco-innovation has not considered the influence of personal characteristics of the employees of a firm. The existing econometric analyses show much "noise" explaining the driving forces of eco-innovation. The paper tries to open the "black box" of unexplained heterogeneity. In fact, latent variables such as the greenness of a firm may be explained by the per-sonal characteristics (gender, family status, geographical origin, education etc.) of the staff and the decision makers in a firm.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 11/2017


    Wage losses due to overqualification: The role of formal degrees and occupational skills

    06 April 2017

    Wage penalties in overqualified employment are well documented, but little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. We test two explanations, namely, formal overqualification and a mismatch of occupational skills. By using the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) survey that is linked to German administrative data, we can objectively measure both types of mismatches. 

    IAB-Discussion Paper 10/2017


    Call for applications for the GradAB-doctoral programme is closing very soon

    21 March 2017

    The current call for applications for the GradAB-doctoral programme in labour market research is closing very soon (31st March 2017).

    The Graduate Center GradAB at IAB offers a three-year programme of high-level training in labour market research, which can be extended for another year under certain conditions. The course programme provides training on labour market research, methods, and data at an advanced level and is held in English. Additionally, applicants are granted access to the excellent data of the IAB on employment and social security.

    The scholarship offers financial support of 1,350 € / month.

    All necessary information is to be found here.

    Call for Applications


    Child care reforms and labor participation of migrant and native mothers

    20 March 2017

    As in other countries, also in Germany there has been large political effort to increase mothers’ labor participation through child care provisions. However, it is an open question whether the latest child care reforms of 2013 are successful in this sense. While the introduction of a home care allowance, the so called ‘Betreuungsgeld’, for families not using public child care for their children aged one and two years was expected to have negative effects, the introduced legal claim for public child care for children of the same age group should increase the use of public child care and therefore speed up the mothers’ return to work after child birth.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 9/2017


    Apprentice Poaching in Regional Labor Markets

    08 March 2017

    A number of studies have found that firms provide less training if they are located in regions with strong labor market competition. This finding is usually interpreted as evidence of a higher risk of poaching in these regions. Yet, there is no direct evidence that regional competition is positively correlated with poaching. Building on a recently established approach to expost identify poaching of apprenticeship completers, our paper is the first to directly investigate the correlation between regional labor market competition and poaching.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 8/2017


    Regional discontinuities and the effectiveness of further training subsidies for low-skilled employees

    02 March 2017


    The author analyze the effects of further training subsidies for low-skilled employees on individual labor market outcomes in Germany for the period from 2007 to 2012. Using detailed administrative data, they exploit cross-regional variation in the conditional policy styles of local employment agencies and use this fuzzy discontinuity as an instrument for program participation. They find that subsidies significantly increase cumulative employment duration and earnings for the subgroup of compliers. These gains are particularly pronounced for workers who are women, younger than 35 years old, non-German citizens and participated before the economic crisis of 2009.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 7/2017


    Offshoring and Firm Overlap

    22 February 2017

    The authors set up a model of offshoring with heterogeneous producers that captures two empirical
    regularities of German offshoring firms. There is selection of larger, more productive firms
    into offshoring. However, the selection is not sharp, and offshoring and non-offshoring firms
    coexist over a wide range of the revenue distribution.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 6/2017


    Labour Market Effects of Wage Inequality and Skill Biased Technical Change in Germany

    14 February 2017

    This paper analyses the relationship between wage inequality and labour market development. Relevant economic theories are ambiguous, just as public debates. We measure the effects of wage inequality, skill-biased and skill-neutral technology on hours worked, productivity and wages in a novel structural vector error correction framework identified by non-recursive long-run restrictions.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 5/2017


    The role of employer, job and employee characteristics for flexible working time

    07 February 2017

    Modern working societies face the challenge to combine the establishments’ with the employees’ needs for working-time flexibility. The authors investigate the determinants of overtime and different working hours’ arrangements using the German Linked Employer-Employee Study of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP-LEE) and logistic regression models. The results show that employer and job characteristics are most important for determining overtime and the different working hours’ arrangements, underlining the power of employers with regard to working-time flexibility.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 4/2017


    Early termination of vocational training: dropout or stopout?

    30 January 2017

    This paper studies the factors that influence the beginning of either a new vocational training in another occupation (stopout) or the stop of vocational training altogether after an early termination (dropout of the vocational system). One influencing factor is the amount of the human capital acquired which is determined by the duration of (early terminated) vocational training.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 3/2017


    Cohort size and transitions into the labour market

    23 January 2017

    This paper estimates the effect that the size of an individual’s labour-market entry cohort has on the subsequent duration of search for employment. Survival-analysis methods are applied to empirically assess this relationship using a sample of appren-ticeship graduates who entered the German labour market between 1999 and 2012.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 2/2017


    EU 4.0 – The Debate on Digitalisation and the Labour Market in Europe

    16 January 2017

    In the recent years an intensive discussion in politics, research, business and socie-tyon the influence of digitalisation on the working world has evolved. This developmentis expected to exert profound effects on the use of human labour. However, judgements widely diverge. The comprehensive debates on “industry 4.0” and “labour 4.0” in Germany are concerned with influences of digitalisation on the economy and the labour market, substitutability of jobs as well as conditions, qualificationsand regulations for a new world of employment. The underlying report gives an overview for several European countries and for the level of the European Union.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 39/2016


    Forecasting Labour Supply and Population: An Integrated Stochastic Model

    09 January 2017

    This paper presents a stochastic integrated model to forecast the German Population and labour supply until 2060. Within a cohort-component approach, the Population forecast applies principal components to birth, mortality, emigration and Immigration rates.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 1/2017


    Economy 4.0 and its labour market and economic impacts

    27 December 2016

    This study focuses on the economic effects of the phenomenon of "Economy 4.0", the digitalisation of the economy as a whole and not only in industrial production processes. These developments involve considerable challenges at enterprise and political level.

    IAB-Forschungsbericht 13/2016


    The valuation of changes in commuting distances: An analysis using georeferenced data

    22 December 2016

    We analyze the causal effect of commuting on wages, using a large sample of German Job changers. Information on their home and workplace addresses in combination with road navigation software allows us to calculate exact door-to-door commuting distances with an unprecedented degree of precision. We use a theoretical model on spatial job search to motivate our empirical strategy. By focusing on job moves, we can use panel data techniques and control for unobserved individual heterogeneity.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 43/2016


    The Growth and Human Capital Structure of New Firms over the Business Cycle

    21 December 2016

    Recent research suggests that employment in young firms is more negatively impacted during economic downturns than employment in incumbent firms. This questions the effectiveness of policies that promote entrepreneurship to fight crises. We complement Prior research that is mostly based on aggregate data by analyzing cyclical effects at the firm level.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 42/2016


    Social Ties for Labor Market Access – Lessons from the Migration of East German Inventors

    12 December 2016

    We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records in the German labor market after reunification.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 41/2016


    The Effects of Immigration on Household Services, Labour Supply and Fertility

    08 December 2016

    Fertility and female labour force participation are no longer negatively correlated in developed countries. Recently, the role of immigration has been put forward as a driving factor among others. Increased immigration affects supply and prices of household services, which are relevant for fertility and employment decisions. This paper analyses the effect of immigration on labour supply and fertility of native women in the UK, with a focus on the role of immigration on household services. Adopting an instrumental variable approach based on the country-specific past distribution of immigrants at regional level, I find that immigration increases female labour supply, without affecting fertility. My results show that immigration increases the size of the childcare sector, and reduces its prices, suggesting that immigrants may ease the trade-off between working and child rearing among native women.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 40/2016



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